Berikut adalah dua pandangan utama mengenai waktu. Yang pertama pandangan ilmiah dari majalah Discover. Yang kedua adalah pandangan Urantia Book. Ada kesejajaran penting dari keduanya, yaitu bahwa waktu itu urutan peristiwa, waktu itu relatif, dan waktu itu bisa maju atau mundur. Buku Urantia maju lebih jauh dengan mengatakan bahwa sebaiknya kita memakai waktu yang ada sebaik-baiknya, karena waktu itu kesempatan yang diberikan pada kita untuk sesuatu tujuan, yaitu takdir atau nasib kita sendiri di alam semesta ini.
ILMU PENGETAHUAN MODERN MENGENAI WAKTU
Ten Things Everyone Should Know About Time | Cosmic Variance
via Discover Magazine on 9/1/11
from Science and Technology News, Science Articles | Discover Magazine
“Time” is the most used noun in the English language, yet it remains a mystery. We’ve just completed an amazingly intense and rewarding multidisciplinary conference on the nature of time, and my brain is swimming with ideas and new questions. Rather than trying a summary (the talks will be online soon), here’s my stab at a top ten list partly inspired by our discussions: the things everyone should know about time. [Update: all of these are things I think are true, after quite a bit of deliberation. Not everyone agrees, although of course they should.]
1. Time exists. Might as well get this common question out of the way. Of course time exists — otherwise how would we set our alarm clocks? Time organizes the universe into an ordered series of moments, and thank goodness; what a mess it would be if reality were complete different from moment to moment. The real question is whether or not time is fundamental, or perhaps emergent. We used to think that “temperature” was a basic category of nature, but now we know it emerges from the motion of atoms. When it comes to whether time is fundamental, the answer is: nobody knows. My bet is “yes,” but we’ll need to understand quantum gravity much better before we can say for sure.
2. The past and future are equally real. This isn’t completely accepted, but it should be. Intuitively we think that the “now” is real, while the past is fixed and in the books, and the future hasn’t yet occurred. But physics teaches us something remarkable: every event in the past and future is implicit in the current moment. This is hard to see in our everyday lives, since we’re nowhere close to knowing everything about the universe at any moment, nor will we ever be — but the equations don’t lie. As Einstein put it, “It appears therefore more natural to think of physical reality as a four dimensional existence, instead of, as hitherto, the evolution of a three dimensional existence.”
3. Everyone experiences time differently. This is true at the level of both physics and biology. Within physics, we used to have Sir Isaac Newton’s view of time, which was universal and shared by everyone. But then Einstein came along and explained that how much time elapses for a person depends on how they travel through space (especially near the speed of light) as well as the gravitational field (especially if its near a black hole). From a biological or psychological perspective, the time measured by atomic clocks isn’t as important as the time measured by our internal rhythms and the accumulation of memories. That happens differently depending on who we are and what we are experiencing; there’s a real sense in which time moves more quickly when we’re older.
4. You live in the past. About 80 milliseconds in the past, to be precise. Use one hand to touch your nose, and the other to touch one of your feet, at exactly the same time. You will experience them as simultaneous acts. But that’s mysterious — clearly it takes more time for the signal to travel up your nerves from your feet to your brain than from your nose. The reconciliation is simple: our conscious experience takes time to assemble, and your brain waits for all the relevant input before it experiences the “now.” Experiments have shown that the lag between things happening and us experiencing them is about 80 milliseconds. (Via conference participant David Eagleman.)
5. Your memory isn’t as good as you think. When you remember an event in the past, your brain uses a very similar technique to imagining the future. The process is less like “replaying a video” than “putting on a play from a script.” If the script is wrong for whatever reason, you can have a false memory that is just as vivid as a true one. Eyewitness testimony, it turns out, is one of the least reliable forms of evidence allowed into courtrooms. (Via conference participants Kathleen McDermott and Henry Roediger.)
6. Consciousness depends on manipulating time. Many cognitive abilities are important for consciousness, and we don’t yet have a complete picture. But it’s clear that the ability to manipulate time and possibility is a crucial feature. In contrast to aquatic life, land-based animals, whose vision-based sensory field extends for hundreds of meters, have time to contemplate a variety of actions and pick the best one. The origin of grammar allowed us to talk about such hypothetical futures with each other. Consciousness wouldn’t be possible without the ability to imagine other times. (Via conference participant Malcolm MacIver.)
7. Disorder increases as time passes. At the heart of every difference between the past and future — memory, aging, causality, free will — is the fact that the universe is evolving from order to disorder. Entropy is increasing, as we physicists say. There are more ways to be disorderly (high entropy) than orderly (low entropy), so the increase of entropy seems natural. But to explain the lower entropy of past times we need to go all the way back to the Big Bang. We still haven’t answered the hard questions: why was entropy low near the Big Bang, and how does increasing entropy account for memory and causality and all the rest? (We heard great talks by David Albert and David Wallace, among others.)
8. Complexity comes and goes. Other than creationists, most people have no trouble appreciating the difference between “orderly” (low entropy) and “complex.” Entropy increases, but complexity is ephemeral; it increases and decreases in complex ways, unsurprisingly enough. Part of the “job” of complex structures is to increase entropy, e.g. in the origin of life. But we’re far from having a complete understanding of this crucial phenomenon. (Talks by Mike Russell, Richard Lenski, Raissa D’Souza.)
9. Aging can be reversed. We all grow old, part of the general trend toward growing disorder. But it’s only the universe as a whole that must increase in entropy, not every individual piece of it. (Otherwise it would be impossible to build a refrigerator.) Reversing the arrow of time for living organisms is a technological challenge, not a physical impossibility. And we’re making progress on a few fronts: stem cells, yeast, and even (with caveats) mice and human muscle tissue. As one biologist told me: “You and I won’t live forever. But as for our grandkids, I’m not placing any bets.”
10. A lifespan is a billion heartbeats. Complex organisms die. Sad though it is in individual cases, it’s a necessary part of the bigger picture; life pushes out the old to make way for the new. Remarkably, there exist simple scaling laws relating animal metabolism to body mass. Larger animals live longer; but they also metabolize slower, as manifested in slower heart rates. These effects cancel out, so that animals from shrews to blue whales have lifespans with just about equal number of heartbeats — about one and a half billion, if you simply must be precise. In that very real sense, all animal species experience “the same amount of time.” At least, until we master #9 and become immortal. (Amazing talk by Geoffrey West.)
BUKU URANTIA MENGENAI WAKTU
DI SURGA TIDAK ADA WAKTU, TUHAN ITU KEKAL
Di Surga tidak ada waktu dan umur, semua kekal dari kekal. Tuhan menempati siklus kekekalan, tanpa awal dan akhir. Tidak ada masa lalu, sekarang atau masa depan bagi Tuhan. Semua waktu itu ada pada satu saat tertentu. Ialah Tuhan yang agung dan AKU ADA.
P.34 - §4 No thing is new to God, and no cosmic event ever comes as a surprise; he inhabits the circle of eternity. He is without beginning or end of days. To God there is no past, present, or future; all time is present at any given moment. He is the great and only I AM.
P.739 - §7 The individual's yardstick for time measurement is the length of his life. All creatures are thus time conditioned, and therefore do they regard evolution as being a long-drawn-out process. To those of us whose life span is not limited by a temporal existence, evolution does not seem to be such a protracted transaction. On Paradise, where time is nonexistent, these things are all present in the mind of Infinity and the acts of Eternity.
Absolut dari waktu adalah kekekalan.
P.135 - §1 Space is not infinite, even though it takes origin from Paradise; not absolute, for it is pervaded by the Unqualified Absolute. We do not know the absolute limits of space, but we do know that the absolute of time is eternity.
WAKTU ADALAH URUTAN GERAK ATAU PERISTIWA
Waktu adalah karunia Surga/Firdaus, secara tidak langsung. Waktu ada karena ada gerak dan karena pikiran itu sadar ada urutan peristiwa. Gerak itu penting bagi waktu.
P.134 - §6 Like space, time is a bestowal of Paradise, but not in the same sense, only indirectly. Time comes by virtue of motion and because mind is inherently aware of sequentiality. From a practical viewpoint, motion is essential to time, but there is no universal time unit based on motion except in so far as the Paradise-HavonaAlam semesta dibagi dua bagian besar, alam semesta yang eksistensial atau ada dari semula tanpa waktu, dan alam semesta yang eksperiensial atau sedang mengalami pengalaman dan dipengaruhi waktu. Kita ada dalam alam semesta ruang-dan-waktu demikian.
P.1297 - §2 Only by ubiquity could Deity unify time-space manifestations to the finite conception, for time is a succession of instants while space is a system of associated points. You do, after all, perceive time by analysis and space by synthesis. You co-ordinate and associate these two dissimilar conceptions by the integrating insight of personality. Of all the animal world only man possesses this time-space perceptibility. To an animal, motion has a meaning, but motion exhibits value only to a creature of personality status.
P.1439 - §2 Time is the stream of flowing temporal events perceived by creature consciousness. Time is a name given to the succession-arrangement whereby events are recognized and segregated. The universe of space is a time-related phenomenon as it is viewed from any interior position outside of the fixed abode of Paradise. The motion of time is only revealed in relation to something which does not move in space as a time phenomenon. In the universe of universes Paradise and its Deities transcend both time and space. On the inhabited worlds, human personality (indwelt and oriented by the Paradise Father's spirit) is the only physically related reality which can transcend the material sequence of temporal events.
WAKTU ITU RELATIF
Perhitungan waktu berbeda-beda. Waktu di alam semesta yang lebih rendah dengan yang lebih tinggi berbeda.
P.618 - §2 12. Time, even in a universe of time, is relativeWaktu standar di alam semesta berbeda-beda.
P.153 - §2 Time is not reckoned on Paradise; the sequence of successive events is inherent in the concept of those who are indigenous to the central Isle. But time is germane to the Havona circuits and to numerous beings of both celestial and terrestrial origin sojourning thereon. Each Havona world has its own local time, determined by its circuit. All worlds in a given circuit have the same length of year since they uniformly swing around Paradise, and the length of these planetary years decreases from the outermost to the innermost circuit.
P.174 - §2 Time is standardized on the headquarters of the superuniverses. The standard day of the superuniverse of Orvonton is equal to almost thirty days of Urantia time, and the Orvonton year equals one hundred standard days. This Uversa year is standard in the seventh superuniverse, and it is twenty-two minutes short of three thousand days of Urantia time, about eight and one fifth of your years.
P.372 - §4 The day in Satania, as reckoned on Jerusem, is a little less (1 hour, 4 minutes, 15 seconds) than three days of Urantia time. These times are generally known as Salvington or universe time, and Satania or system time. Standard time is universe time.
SEMUA CIPTAAN TERBATAS OLEH WAKTU
P.739 - §7 The individual's yardstick for time measurement is the length of his life. All creatures are thus time conditioned, and therefore do they regard evolution as being a long-drawn-out process. To those of us whose life span is not limited by a temporal existence, evolution does not seem to be such a protracted transaction.Bahkan makhluk-makhluk roh tinggi juga terbatas oleh waktu. Mereka harus bepergian menempuh alam ruang, dan itu memerlukan waktu. Jika manusia bisa terbang dengan kecepatan 1000 km perjam, maka malaikat seperti seraphim bisa dua hingga tiga kali kecepatan cahaya, malaikat Solitary Messenger bisa berlipat kali, Adjuster sekian jam, Gravity Messenger hampir seketika, dan oknum-oknum lain, semuanya memerlukan waktu meskipun berbeda-beda.
P.376 - §5 The Infinite Spirit pervades all space and indwells the circle of eternity. Still, in their personal contact with the children of time, the personalities of the Infinite Spirit must often reckon with temporal elements, though not so much with space.
P.1186 - §7 When once the Adjusters are actually dispatched from Divinington, practically no time intervenes between that moment and the hour of their appearance in the minds of their chosen subjects. The average transit time of an Adjuster from Divinington to Urantia is 117 hours, 42 minutes, and 7 seconds. Virtually all of this time is occupied with registration on Uversa.Seorang Putera Pencipta bisa mengatasi waktu. Ia bisa berbuat seketika jadi. Tidak halnya dengan pasangannya yaitu Ibu Roh Alamsemesta. Sebaliknya seorang Putera Pencipta tidak bisa mengatasi ruang. Ia tidak bisa hadir di dua tempat pada saat bersamaan, sedangkan Ibu Roh bisa.
P.376 - §7 Only as regards the element of time is a Creative Spirit ever limited in her universe ministrations. A Creator Son acts instantaneously throughout his universe;
P.376 - §5 Many mind ministries ignore space but suffer a time lag in effecting co-ordination of diverse levels of universe reality. A Solitary Messenger is virtually independent of space except that time is actually required in traveling from one location to another; and there are similar entities unknown to you.
P.1120 - §1 Time is an invariable element in the attainment of knowledge;
CONTOH BEBERAPA PENGARUH WAKTU
Mengapa pengadilan Lucifer lama sekali baru dilaksanakan? Yesus sudah menyelesaikan penghakiman atas Setan ketika ia ada di Bumi tahun lalu, tetapi baru pada awal abad 20 dilakukan dengar pendapat di pengadilan di Uversa ibukota galaksi atau alamsemesta super kita, dan mereka ditahan. Kabar terakhir bahwa Lucifer sudah dimusnahkan pada awal abad 21. Selama waktu itu, kelompok Lucifer dan Satan seakan dibiarkan merusak dunia dan membawa kerusakan dimana-mana. Mengapa tidak seketika saja dihakimi?
P.616 - §7 But these mercy delays are not interminable. Notwithstanding the long delay (as time is reckoned on Urantia) in adjudicating the Lucifer rebellion, we may record that, during the time of effecting this revelation, the first hearing in the pending case of Gabriel vs. Lucifer was held on Uversa, and soon thereafter there issued the mandate of the Ancients of Days directing that Satan be henceforth confined to the prison world with Lucifer. This ends the ability of Satan to pay further visits to any of the fallen worlds of Satania. Justice in a mercy-dominated universe may be slow, but it is certain.PERJALANAN MANUSIA DI ALAM SEMESTA AKAN PANJANG MENEMPUH WAKTU YANG LAMA
P.618 - §2 12. Time, even in a universe of time, is relative: If a Urantia mortal of average length of life should commit a crime which precipitated world-wide pandemonium, and if he were apprehended, tried, and executed within two or three days of the commission of the crime, would it seem a long time to you? And yet that would be nearer a comparison with the length of Lucifer's life even if his adjudication, now begun, should not be completed for a hundred thousand Urantia years. The relative lapse of time from the viewpoint of Uversa, where the litigation is pending, could be indicated by saying that the crime of Lucifer was being brought to trial within two and a half seconds of its commission. From the Paradise viewpoint the adjudication is simultaneous with the enactment.
Perjalanan manusia juga panjang menempuh alam semesta selama waktu yang sangat lama.
P.295 - §2 Step by step, life by life, world by world, the ascendant career has been mastered, and the goal of Deity has been attained. Survival is complete in perfection, and perfection is replete in the supremacy of divinity. Time is lost in eternity; space is swallowed up in worshipful identity and harmony with the Universal Father. The broadcasts of Havona flash forth the space reports of glory, the good news that in very truth the conscientious creatures of animal nature and material origin have, through evolutionary ascension, become in reality and eternally the perfected sons of God.
WAKTU ADALAH KESEMPATAN UNTUK MENENTUKAN NASIB KITA
Waktu itu kesempatan dan talenta yang diberikan, jangan sampai kita abaikan, gunakan sebaik-baiknya. Waktu diberikan secukupnya untuk keputusan kita, ikut kehendak Tuhan atau tidak. Waktu itu kesempatan menentukan nasib kita.
P.315 - §2 3. The Import of Time. Time is the one universal endowment of all will creatures; it is the "one talent" intrusted to all intelligent beings. You all have time in which to insure your survival; and time is fatally squandered only when it is buried in neglect, when you fail so to utilize it as to make certain the survival of your soul. Failure to improve one's time to the fullest extent possible does not impose fatal penalties; it merely retards the pilgrim of time in his journey of ascent. If survival is gained, all other losses can be retrieved.
P.315 - §3 In the assignment of trusts the counsel of the Imports of Time is invaluable. Time is a vital factor in everything this side of Havona and Paradise. In the final judgment before the Ancients of Days, time is an element of evidence. The Imports of Time must always afford testimony to show that every defendant has had ample time for making decisions, achieving choice.
P.295 - §1 The test of time is almost over; the race for eternity has been all but run. The days of uncertainty are ending; the temptation to doubt is vanishing; the injunction to be perfect has been obeyed. From the very bottom of intelligent existence the creature of time and material personality has ascended the evolutionary spheres of space, thus proving the feasibility of the ascension plan while forever demonstrating the justice and righteousness of the command of the Universal Father to his lowly creatures of the worlds: "Be you perfect, even as I am perfect."